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  • 전주콜걸↫예약✖전주마사지 받다가﹛전주존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지﹜◤(전주신림 모텔)↿전주상남동 안마방⊙전주가산디지털단지역 안마방❁전주춘천 안마방✁전주안마방 백마☪전주안마방 젤

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    대구출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    전주콜걸γ24시출장샵♗전주마사지 받다가﹛전주정액 마사지﹜☃(전주사당역 안마방)⇠전주화명동 마사지0전주마사지 사정╜전주흉쇄유돌근 마사지↯전주부산 연산동 출장✪전주충주 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 대구남순 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    전주콜걸❤예약금없는출장샵↹전주마사지 받다가﹛전주마사지방﹜↮(전주동대구 마사지)╁전주안마방 ts↙전주익산 안마방ω전주호치민 1군 마사지░전주울산 삼산 안마방☏전주지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    전주콜걸⇩24시출장샵╉전주마사지 받다가﹛전주구월동 안마방﹜┏(전주손 마사지)└전주국산 안마방╋전주천안 퇴폐♐전주수원역 마사지✂전주휴게텔 안마방⇩전주마사지황형

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 서울출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    전주콜걸◘예약↸전주마사지 받다가﹛전주셀룰라이트 마사지﹜♭(전주마산 안마방)ヨ전주안산 줄리엣 마사지↿전주마포구 안마방.전주안마방 스텝☄전주마사지 3만원↪전주태국 마사지 후기

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 강진video fc2 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    전주콜걸☚ 출장부르는법↹전주마사지 받다가﹛전주남자 출장 마사지﹜➵(전주마사지 가격)◦전주러브어게인 만남☞전주외국인 안마방♦전주미약 마사지▷전주두통 완화 마사지☪전주에가오 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 광주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    전주콜걸전주평택 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    전주콜걸✑예약┄전주마사지 받다가﹛전주동출장마사지﹜⇃(전주오류동 안마방)☈전주고양이 안마방§전주동대구역 여관♪전주아산 안마방╓전주구리 안마방♩전주대전 출장안마

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 산청전립선 마사지 느낌 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, carpanda.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    울산출장안마
    부평건강 마사지 카지노사이트 구례여자 모텔
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    전주콜걸┗예약◦전주마사지 받다가﹛전주경주 안마방﹜⇚(전주중국 대딸)ウ전주이태원 안마방✘전주계산동 안마방↽전주건대 마사지♨전주향남 안마방◐전주간석동 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 청양부산 출장안마 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    전주콜걸☺출장부르는법♂전주마사지 받다가﹛전주대전 마사지 추천﹜◆(전주만짜이 마사지)◎전주연신내 안마방▧전주서양 안마방⇡전주강남역 마사지✏전주덕계 마사지✌전주안마방 한국

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 원주출장샵 .

    강릉새로운 안마방 아가씨
    보성하단 마사지 서울출장안마 포항안마방 건마
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    전주콜걸♖24시출장샵☎전주마사지 받다가﹛전주논현 마사지﹜↾(전주여성 전신 마사지)⇩전주해운대 모텔☈전주호구포 마사지┱전주아내 마사지ⓥ전주속초 모텔 추천➢전주사상 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    전주콜걸♐24시출장샵╰전주마사지 받다가﹛전주타이 마사지﹜▲(전주안마방 토렌트)⇡전주청주 마사지○전주논산 안마방☜전주강남 타이마사지☻전주오키나와 마사지↔전주미금역 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 서천에로 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    전주콜걸↘출장부르는법⇦전주마사지 받다가﹛전주김무열 마사지﹜カ(전주슈얼 마사지)├전주구디 안마방♠전주어깨통증 마사지⊙전주한국야동 안마방♠전주전북 안마방0전주군산 모텔 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    전주콜걸⇌예약セ전주마사지 받다가﹛전주박시연 마사지﹜╢(전주고주파 마사지)↶전주부산 모텔↼전주출장안마야한곳﹃전주타이마사지 섹스✄전주온천장 안마방➻전주씨엠립 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 제천대구 아로마 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 포항출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강진말레이시아 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    전주콜걸◥24시출장샵囍전주마사지 받다가﹛전주tumblr 마사지﹜♪ (전주강남구청 안마방)┲전주울산 안마방 추천◄전주태국마사지 후기♐전주지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지♜전주안마방 옵션╫전주엄지 눈 근육 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 군산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    전주콜걸➷출장부르는법⇤전주마사지 받다가﹛전주선입금 출장﹜♝(전주여관 비용)◢전주진주시 안마방↺전주진접 안마방囍전주안마방 엄마◎전주일본 오일 마사지♠전주여성전용 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    광주항문 마사지
    대전출장샵 동두천정선 사북 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    전주콜걸╈예약금없는출장샵┅전주마사지 받다가﹛전주안면 비대칭 마사지﹜⇃(전주출장시)┳전주안마방 오일┷전주av 마사지▨전주안양1번가 마사지⇣전주공주 안마방▨전주승모근 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.전주콜걸전주논현 마사지▤전주아가씨 출장➦(전주의정부 모텔 추천)전주안마방 빡촌⇇전주호이안 마사지↞전주용원 안마방☃전주안마방 썰➹카지노사이트예약전주안마방 김치남♔전주출장 만남 대행▌{전주출장마사지}전주마송 여관↺전주마사지 만화ネ전주마사지 torrent♘전주태평역 안마방☁전주콜걸고령안마방 투샷 가격전주노량진 마사지♟전주출장샵예약⇪(전주연예인 마사지)전주베트남 마사지 가격✐전주역출장안마♕전주마사지 배우는곳♟전주발 마사지◈전주출장샵강추ユ전주안마방 밥◄<전주창원 마사지>전주마사지 품번 추천┢전주일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지☭전주안마방 어디까지☼전주마사지 노출⇢전주세부 마사지 엑스트라☲전주진주 가격⇆【전주대구 여관】전주아침 안마방⇣전주비엔티엔 마사지▷전주역곡 마사지♛전주타이마사지 팁↦전주국산 안마방☛전주인계동 안마방 후기♖{전주서양 마사지 토렌트}전주이천 안마방ネ전주대구 안마방 후기↿전주마사지 젤◙전주팔자주름 마사지⊕24시출장샵통영을지로 안마방24시출장샵전주해외 안마방❀전주강릉 여관ヘ《전주안마방 키스 가능》전주주안 모텔 추천┴전주연예인 마사지╠ 전주안마방 위키█전주사상 마사지┸전주콜걸전주콜걸대전출장안마전주출장코스가격전주인도 마사지전주최음 마사지전주마사지 물전주콜걸전주보라카이 마사지➡전주홍성 안마방⇏[전주군포 안마방]전주태국 전립선 마사지►전주검빛 경마 검색➺전주탄트라 마사지⇡전주안마방 통화기록♀안동청주 안마방 가격

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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