원주콜걸☄예약금없는출장샵╆원주체코 마사지<원주겨드랑이 마사지>⇤《원주모텔출장》┐원주안마방 수원☄원주안양 안마방 후기⇀원주마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻♠원주건식 마사지┺원주부산 수영 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

원주콜걸➶예약⊙원주체코 마사지<원주가산 마사지>↟《원주타이 마사지 단속》☈원주해수욕 마사지┏원주송탄 안마방◘원주스웨 디시 마사지 란◇원주이태원 안마방☈원주마사지 수면실

The governments of more than 190 nations 평택무거동 출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

원주콜걸⇣출장부르는법╗원주체코 마사지<원주안마방 구분>☼《원주안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임》◑원주아산 마사지☏원주강릉 타이 마사지✣원주노량진 안마방◘원주폰섹 녹음☏원주옆광대 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

원주콜걸⇐예약➳원주체코 마사지<원주홍콩 안마방>テ《원주안마방 부산》“원주레이크호텔 마사지↬원주안마방 한번싸면■원주안산 줄리엣 마사지♪원주광주 모텔⇢원주마사지 유출

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 서울출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

원주콜걸◘예약금없는출장샵←원주체코 마사지<원주예약>☀《원주안마방 미시》✒원주의정부 안마방 추천§원주마사지 구분➳원주뒷목 마사지❂원주외국인 안마방➛원주동두천 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 구미부산역 모텔 추천 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

원주콜걸┸예약금없는출장샵◑원주체코 마사지<원주마사지 기계>►《원주마사지 일본》◎원주부산 안마방 가격┏원주연산동 안마방✔원주강남 안마방 위치╕원주안마방 썰만화┸원주울산 동구 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

원주콜걸원주일산 안마방

  • 충주출장
  • 원주안마방 엉덩이
  • 원주콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    원주콜걸▤예약금없는출장샵┳원주체코 마사지<원주에이스 안마방>⇘《원주중랑구 마사지》╰원주멜라니↓원주서산시 안마방☲원주산호동 마사지✕원주안마방 번호◐원주마사지 섹스

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 안동강서구청 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 제주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    창원안마방 오일 카지노사이트 전라북도치앙마이 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대구출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    원주콜걸♈출장부르는법╣원주체코 마사지<원주출장샵예약>▥《원주출장서비스보장》☠원주안중 모텔ノ원주출장안마야한곳✡원주교대 마사지☺원주익산 모텔 추천♣원주마사지방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 천안안마방 에이즈 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    원주콜걸◆예약▣원주체코 마사지<원주동네 안마방>⊙《원주아로마 마사지 후기》✉원주광주 모텔✚원주제주도 마사지┕원주안마방 홈런メ원주일본 마사지 섹스⇩원주공유 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 서울출장안마 .

    화순출장오쓰피걸
    증평통영 안마방 포항출장샵 강릉호치민 리버티 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    원주콜걸™24시출장샵“원주체코 마사지<원주안마방 vs 오피>♠《원주강남 왁싱샵》▶원주마석 안마방┗원주마사지 기획물∴원주상록수 안마방ヒ원주오피 안마방ω원주속초 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. dkevent.xyz .

    원주콜걸─출장부르는법⇛원주체코 마사지<원주안마방 태국녀>シ《원주마사지 단속》-원주하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지╖원주포항 터미널 모텔╊원주테크노폴리스 마사지♪원주안마방 몰카 토렌트└원주필리핀 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대구출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 양양아비게일 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    원주콜걸▫출장부르는법➛원주체코 마사지<원주김무열 마사지>ハ《원주춘천 마사지 후기》◐원주논현 안마방◐원주제기동 안마방┏원주안마방 찾기❤원주1인샵 마사지☆원주pornhub 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    원주콜걸☠출장부르는법✌원주체코 마사지<원주와이프 마사지>★《원주서산 마사지》╓원주게이 마사지┛원주안마방 직원⇃원주포천 마사지⊙원주안마방 조루⇡원주청도 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 제주도출장샵예약 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. undersite.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 부산여성전용 마사지 구인 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    원주콜걸✐출장부르는법↚원주체코 마사지<원주출장태국마사지>»《원주마송 여관》▀원주전립선 마사지 부작용⇠원주안마방 사이트▶원주요괴 마사지○원주족저근막염 마사지♪원주마사지 배우기

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and dr-choi.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    원주콜걸♀출장부르는법♡원주체코 마사지<원주출장서비스>◦《원주하이퐁 마사지》↔원주장안동 안마방❀원주연산 안마방➵원주아침 안마방♝원주마포구청 마사지γ원주상추 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진해세부 마사지
    바카라사이트 성주전주 마사지 클럽 loveyangju.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    원주콜걸☺출장부르는법-원주체코 마사지<원주용암동 모텔>◘《원주서울대입구 마사지》✔원주안마방 부산♥원주마사지 품번ⓛ원주부산역 모텔 가격↾원주안마방 여자┄원주화성 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.원주콜걸원주동탄 마사지 후기┆원주답십리 안마방▫《원주후쿠오카 마사지》원주레즈 안마방┘원주엉덩이 마사지♦원주구월동 마사지ν원주얼굴 경락 마사지 방법◢lovejg.xyz예약금없는출장샵원주서울 출장⇣원주일본 마사지 몰카⇛(원주금촌 안마방)원주안마방 태국녀┡원주안와상융기 마사지☯원주렉시벨 마사지⇤원주다낭 에덴 마사지╍원주콜걸익산대전 커플 마사지원주송원장 마사지➶원주금정 마사지ο(원주사우나 마사지)원주원룸 출장☎원주동탄 마사지┌원주안마방 오일╃원주폰섹 녹음♬원주마사지 젤☯원주신흥 안마방┺《원주경동맥 마사지》원주갓비비 마사지➦원주vip 마사지♩원주동대구역 모텔 추천⇩원주스포츠 마사지♠원주구미 안마방✍원주대화역 마사지▫〈원주비키니 마사지〉원주안마방 오피☪원주남자 출장 마사지♀원주어스파▧원주태국 마사지 종류╪원주삼성역 안마방⇠원주거제도 모텔 추천✿‹원주창원 출장 숙소›원주안산 안마방╄원주동인천 마사지╚원주안마방 모닝콜┮원주고추 마사지✑출장부르는법서귀포시흥 마사지출장부르는법원주삼송역 안마방✕원주조건 만남▫(원주남편 안마방)원주오야넷 마사지⊙원주출장마사지☇원주고추 마사지δ원주목동 안마방↬원주콜걸원주콜걸수원출장샵원주일산 모텔 가격원주출장 만남 대행원주가슴커지는 마사지원주마산 안마방원주콜걸원주진주 마사지☺원주모텔 출장마사지╰(원주도쿄 마사지)원주마사지 강좌»원주오피걸┦원주일본식 안마방◤원주안마방 엄마◑부산덕소 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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