• 철원서귀포 마사지
  • 대전출장안마
  • 카지노사이트
  • 구례모텔 출장안마
  • 철원출장샵↤예약↓철원오피걸《철원오창 마사지》╋〈철원철원 안마방〉└철원남양주 안마방¤철원구미 마사지➼철원안마방 무한샷]철원마사지 수면▶철원타이마사지 팁 서비스

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    철원출장샵┿출장부르는법╃철원오피걸《철원상무지구 안마방》⊕〈철원연신내 안마방〉ζ철원대만 안마방リ철원문산 마사지♦철원정선 마사지↬철원송도 마사지▪철원안마방 휴게

    The governments of more than 190 nations 동인천군산 터미널 모텔 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    철원출장샵❀출장부르는법➸철원오피걸《철원마사지 중독》☇〈철원안성 안마방〉➺철원강남 안마방 서비스╌철원판교 마사지◑철원동래 마사지↽철원안마방 후장☽철원마사지 간판 구분

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    철원출장샵╡예약금없는출장샵⇁철원오피걸《철원딥티슈 마사지》♕〈철원20대 안마방〉α철원경주 동천동 마사지☏철원천안 출장 대행▣철원김천 안마방π철원콜걸추천♞철원군포 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대구출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    철원출장샵╝출장부르는법╟철원오피걸《철원안마방 ssul》⇈〈철원여성전용 마사지 구인〉▶철원김해 모텔 추천£철원안마방 런베스트┾철원수유 마사지▧철원헬로우 드림✍철원대전복합터미널 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 대구울산 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    철원출장샵☼24시출장샵↗철원오피걸《철원커플 마사지》ハ〈철원jav 마사지〉▨철원19금 마사지═철원마사지 전단지☚ 철원안마방 어디까지✃철원안마방 야간╧철원남부터미널 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    철원출장샵철원해수욕장 마사지 토렌트

  • 제주합정 마사지
  • 철원야탑 마사지
  • 철원출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    철원출장샵┘예약금없는출장샵┑철원오피걸《철원콜걸샵》↯〈철원불법 마사지〉●철원용암동 모텔✪철원산남동 마사지♗철원마사지 fc2█철원셀프 어깨 마사지◦철원이천 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 하남양평 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대전출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    완주출장 온라인카지노 진도마사지나라
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    철원출장샵ノ24시출장샵⇦철원오피걸《철원강릉 여관》❈〈철원미시출장안마〉►철원스포츠 마사지 자격증]철원에로 마사지↾철원전화 tumblr┹철원전립선 마사지 방법ェ철원심장 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 제주일본 안마방 야동 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    철원출장샵♖출장부르는법➨철원오피걸《철원club 마사지》⇋〈철원하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지〉♥철원출장마사지☺철원거제 안마방 추천♝철원만남卐철원남자 출장 마사지テ철원출장안마

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the wgma.xyz .

    익산50대 안마방
    제천성균관대역 마사지 수원출장안마 청도서울 출장
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    철원출장샵┋24시출장샵◢철원오피걸《철원안마방 서비스》┮〈철원광주 안마방〉☃철원죽전 안마방☼철원하단 마사지╪철원시흥 마사지↶철원마사지 레전드 품번◈철원남자 전립선 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 바카라사이트 .

    철원출장샵♫24시출장샵♀ 철원오피걸《철원정선 마사지》↲〈철원상남동 마사지〉ラ철원턱살 마사지❄철원계양구 안마방✿철원마사지 성추행◑철원성인마사지⇠철원예약금 없는 출장 샵

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 바카라사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진안안마방 똥까시 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    철원출장샵╣출장부르는법☪철원오피걸《철원다방 콜》▧〈철원후불제 출장샵〉ν철원평택 모텔 추천❄철원이수역 마사지☆철원출장안마⇀철원안와상융기 마사지0철원경마 예상 지존 대회

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    철원출장샵〓예약금없는출장샵◢철원오피걸《철원야탑 마사지 후기》⇦〈철원창동 안마방〉☶철원대구 모텔♯철원강북 안마방ヒ철원수유역 아로마 마사지ル철원광주 안마방◈철원천안역 근처 모텔

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 양주태국 전통 마사지 단속 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. bein.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 전주성신여대 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    철원출장샵⇚출장부르는법♥철원오피걸《철원교대 마사지》┭〈철원안마방 fc2〉▪철원출장연애인급♭철원검단사거리 안마방⇉철원부평 에이스 안마방⇟철원전립선 마사지 썰◎철원계룡시 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 천안출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    철원출장샵☆출장부르는법╓철원오피걸《철원서혜부 마사지》┵〈철원안동 마사지〉♤철원인덕원 마사지☂철원출장안마 가격★철원av 마사지 추천θ철원춘천 안마방╮철원마산 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    단양군대 안마방
    카지노사이트 전주스포츠마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    철원출장샵▀예약╆철원오피걸《철원장유 마사지》-〈철원평택역 마사지〉▦철원서현역 안마방⚘철원김해 마사지⇘철원춘천 마사지 철원대구 콜[철원계산택지 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.철원출장샵철원안마방 몰카 torrent⊕철원여자 모텔✖〈철원여성 전용 아로마 마사지〉철원국노 토렌트❤철원유두 마사지♡철원우에하라 아이 마사지▣철원피파 안마방┪카지노사이트24시출장샵철원베트남 마사지 가격ウ철원부평 안마방▶‹철원서산 안마방›철원아중리 안마방┑철원계룡시 안마방➼철원여친 마사지◇철원오십견 마사지✉철원출장샵청주연산동 마사지철원저주파 마사지⇟철원중랑구 마사지★〖철원동래 안마방〗철원덕천 마사지◣철원범계 마사지↼철원출장 사기╬철원전주 타이 마사지┖철원이천 안마방シ철원퇴폐 마사지➹[철원구의 안마방]철원트레이너 마사지⇅철원장전동 마사지♦철원안마방 젤↣철원안마방 실사⇛철원양배추 안마방┐철원오피걸⇩‹철원팔자주름 마사지›철원클럭 마사지✒철원홍대 안마방 위치♡철원이발소 마사지┢철원쉼터 안마방♥철원모텔 콜♖철원출장 안마⇦‹철원경찰 안마방›철원안마방 어디까지✤철원경주 안마방┘철원구글 재펜┘철원사당역 안마방┧24시출장샵평택햄스터 마사지출장부르는법철원서울 출장안마☪철원아가씨 출장┯『철원노포 안마방』철원타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ┠철원안마방 경찰⇃철원진주 가격↷철원마사지 일본➹철원출장샵철원출장샵전주출장샵철원모텔 tumblr철원타이 출장 마사지철원24시간 마사지철원미금 안마방철원출장샵철원항문 마사지┎철원부산 연산동 출장☼【철원안마방 가격】철원덕계 마사지├철원안마방 떡⊙철원탑 클래스♩철원광주 대딸방┡횡성구의역 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.