예약
  • 고양흉쇄유돌근 마사지
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  • 부산출장안마
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  • 고양콜걸↹24시출장샵╎고양감성마사지란‹고양중국 대딸›⇢『고양서산 마사지』◙고양청주 안마방 가격╂고양연신내 마사지☇고양밀양 안마방♖고양이영학 안마방☻고양춘천 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    창원출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    고양콜걸☆예약╬고양감성마사지란‹고양서양 마사지 토렌트›↚『고양부부 마사지』╄고양안마방 모텔▀고양응암 마사지↠고양부천 마사지 추천☣고양태국 마사지 종류☈고양금정역 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 양산안면 비대칭 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    고양콜걸テ24시출장샵↔고양감성마사지란‹고양예약금 없는 출장›┨『고양거제 마사지』◎고양유선 마사지┆고양오산 타이 마사지◘고양사당 마사지☰고양눈커지는 마사지┭고양대구 마사지 추천

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    고양콜걸♦24시출장샵┲고양감성마사지란‹고양대산 마사지›♠『고양안마방 사귄』◑고양평택 여관τ고양nhdta 마사지➚고양안마방 키스╚고양안마방 tumblr♐고양안마방 대딸

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories jtvx.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    고양콜걸☻24시출장샵┦고양감성마사지란‹고양천호 안마방›➷『고양수원역 마사지』↓고양송내 마사지┴고양태국마사지 불법☎고양안마방 오피┉고양안마방 도촬╉고양마사지 사이트

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부천안마방 몰 카 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    고양콜걸♚예약금없는출장샵┥고양감성마사지란‹고양포항 안마방›☒『고양지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지』↢고양대구 마사지 추천τ고양안마방 팁❧고양부산 수영 안마방⇜고양운서역 안마방ヌ고양창원 안마방 후기

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    고양콜걸고양역곡 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    고양콜걸⊙예약└고양감성마사지란‹고양출장›─『고양헬로우 드림』ェ고양보령 마사지ウ고양천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ✖고양안마방 찾기☄고양타이 아로마 마사지┳고양안마방 vip

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 홍천안마방 녹음 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 진주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    부천송파 마사지 대구출장샵 원주안마방 떡
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, okbari.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    고양콜걸▥24시출장샵↔고양감성마사지란‹고양대딸›➺『고양부산 안마방 추천』╋고양해수욕장 마사지 토렌트▶고양임산부 마사지╘고양pornhub 안마방♪고양출장연애인급╥고양마사지 gif

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 청주대전 안마방 후기 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    고양콜걸●예약금없는출장샵▶고양감성마사지란‹고양부산 출장안마›⇇『고양다낭 마사지 vip』«고양의정부 안마방0고양여자친구 마사지✁고양야 동 마사지▒고양여자 모텔┫고양연수동 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    구미화정 안마방
    인천안마방 홈런 jasulloc.xyz 안산회음부 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    고양콜걸♣출장부르는법☈고양감성마사지란‹고양안마방 빡촌›↕『고양서정리 안마방』♛고양모유수유 마사지◎고양구글 안마방⇂고양서귀포 안마방◄고양노원 마사지◑고양안마방 젤

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. gogotown.xyz .

    고양콜걸⇀출장부르는법┛고양감성마사지란‹고양안마방 video›⇣『고양목동역 마사지』◄고양일본 마사지 tumblrモ고양경산 사우나 마사지♪고양두피 마사지➴고양서울 출장 후기╎고양모유수유 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 정읍안마방 스킬 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    고양콜걸♫예약✤고양감성마사지란‹고양안마방 용어›◐『고양출장샵예약』╜고양검빛 경마 검색♢고양사가정 안마방ヒ고양부산 해운대 안마방▧고양광주 안마방 추천∷고양누드 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    고양콜걸┄예약♞고양감성마사지란‹고양평택 마사지›┩『고양대전 안마방 추천』ⓔ고양울란바토르 마사지-고양거제도 모텔 추천▄고양유성 안마방 후기⇟고양고딩 안마방⇏고양안마방 전화번호 저장

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 전주영통 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 군산출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 충청남도안마방 창업 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that tongyanglife.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고양콜걸♐예약.고양감성마사지란‹고양태국여행 마사지›↩『고양안마방 숙박』⇥고양제주도 안마방➚고양답십리 마사지↺고양앙헬레스 마사지▬고양안마방 몇시➽고양마사지 배우는곳

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, tongyanglife.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    고양콜걸⇜예약금없는출장샵♠고양감성마사지란‹고양타이 출장 마사지›↔『고양마사지 야설』╎고양대전 모텔 다방➳고양서울 마사지 홈 서비스┲고양전립선 마사지↔고양사이판 마사지✪고양서울 조건 카톡

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    여수울산 동구 마사지
    창원출장샵 성주모텔 출장마사지 창원출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    고양콜걸◐예약↷고양감성마사지란‹고양화성 마사지›✥『고양오류동 마사지』✿고양커플 마사지 후기●고양구디 안마방☞고양장 마사지⇘고양베트남 마사지┃고양태국 마사지 가격

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고양콜걸고양영등포 마사지☣고양모텔 티켓☆『고양안마방 항문』고양강남구청 안마방⇩고양안마방 풀코스χ고양눈커지는 마사지┕고양목 마사지↲군산출장샵예약고양장안동 마사지囍고양사타구니 마사지▨《고양강서 마사지》고양회음부 마사지£고양국노♦고양캄보디아 마사지☣고양양구 안마방╣고양콜걸안동안마방 torrent고양서산 안마방☭고양분당 안마방❤《고양신데렐라 안마방》고양마사지 야.동☢고양역출장안마☢고양석계 마사지╬ 고양fc2 남친 마사지♚고양칠곡3지구 마사지╊고양마사지 ㅅㅅ┓<고양신림동 여관>고양출장연애인급⇦고양베트남 하노이 마사지↸고양진주 안마방┤고양타이마사지 팁◐고양일본식 안마방○고양경주 마사지╩〈고양체코 마사지 fc2〉고양야탑 마사지ღ고양마누라 마사지╞고양일본 마사지 tumblr◐고양안산 조건┓고양전립선 마사지 후기⇀고양출장 만남 대행┼‹고양야탑 마사지 후기›고양콜녀♜고양안마방 휴게텔☳고양허리 마사지☜고양목동 마사지υ예약금없는출장샵이천마사지 커뮤니티24시출장샵고양마사지 썰↿고양마사지 하다가❧【고양전기 마사지】고양한국 안마방╨고양포항 타이마사지♞고양안마방 유출⇡고양하마사키 마오 마사지★고양콜걸고양콜걸카지노사이트고양안마방 서울고양청량리 안마방고양테니스공 마사지고양남양주 안마방고양콜걸고양안마방 에이스 토렌트ψ고양아줌마 마사지➚[고양천안 만남]고양강남 전립선 마사지1고양안마방 용어┘고양태국 마사지 야동↣고양호치민 안마방↺양구남편 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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