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  • 동두천출장안마♦24시출장샵➼동두천인계동 안마방《동두천마사지 중독》➦〖동두천안마방 카드결제〗◐동두천노원 마사지 추천⇤동두천마사지 구인┝동두천발마사지♠동두천av 마사지 추천♣동두천강서 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    울산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    동두천출장안마✄출장부르는법☁동두천인계동 안마방《동두천안마방 아줌마》☽〖동두천부산 출장안마〗╩동두천마사지 질싸↓동두천창원 안마방▲동두천오야넷 마사지╀동두천코 마사지⇩동두천창동 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 동인천타이 마사지 팁 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    동두천출장안마⇔출장부르는법♡동두천인계동 안마방《동두천김해 마사지》ノ〖동두천다크서클 없애는 마사지〗┢동두천안마방 추천↴동두천파주 안마방★동두천아로마 마사지 부작용╃동두천마사지 사정η동두천금정 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    동두천출장안마↺예약금없는출장샵π동두천인계동 안마방《동두천영통 마사지》◑〖동두천파주 마사지〗⇤동두천안마방 가격╎동두천다낭 마사지 vip╝동두천양재역 마사지⇐동두천허리통증 마사지┽동두천홍콩 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 서울출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    동두천출장안마✖출장부르는법✿동두천인계동 안마방《동두천타이마사지 가격》↿〖동두천탈모 마사지〗☜동두천익산 마사지ミ동두천스웨디시 마사지 후기⇪동두천선입금 없는 출장 만남❃동두천안마방 수원ス동두천카톡

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 평택호텔식 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    동두천출장안마♐예약ネ동두천인계동 안마방《동두천모텔 출장마사지》◈〖동두천동네 안마방〗❄동두천태국 마사지 가격⇃동두천성감 마사지➽동두천모텔 다방✖동두천전주 터미널 모텔㍿동두천24시간 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    동두천출장안마동두천의정부 대딸방

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    동두천출장안마➠출장부르는법✐동두천인계동 안마방《동두천장한평 안마방》✚〖동두천구로디지털단지 마사지〗┓동두천오산 마사지┎동두천국노 torrent↜동두천석남동 안마방↩동두천춘천 태국 마사지┲동두천태국 아로마 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 진주안성 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 구미출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    남양주안마방 수위 군산출장샵 경상남도운서역 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 포항출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    동두천출장안마┋24시출장샵⇤동두천인계동 안마방《동두천아로마 마사지 팬티》ツ〖동두천안마방 가격〗╛동두천영등포 안마방┯동두천기흥구청 마사지✆동두천안마방 움짤♪ 동두천수원 태국 마사지╳동두천스웨 디시 마사지 란

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 전주삿포로 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    동두천출장안마☑예약금없는출장샵ノ동두천인계동 안마방《동두천삼산동 출장》↲〖동두천안마방 사진〗♚동두천상록수역 안마방⇃동두천경추성 두통 마사지╰동두천가산디지털단지역 안마방✃동두천서면 안마방→동두천안마방 카드결제

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 수원출장안마 .

    서산당진 안마방
    임실클럭 마사지 서울출장안마 김포장애인 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    동두천출장안마↔예약금없는출장샵セ동두천인계동 안마방《동두천제천 마사지》♜〖동두천경동맥 마사지〗➳동두천안마방 휴게텔♚동두천하남 안마방⇁동두천안마방 비아그라➴동두천평택 마사지ワ동두천전립선 마사지 비용

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    동두천출장안마←예약⇇동두천인계동 안마방《동두천방이동 마사지》↢〖동두천가평 안마방〗╊동두천카톡 출장 만남❂동두천포항 타이마사지ナ동두천서울 안마방☪동두천죽전 안마방ソ동두천원주 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 전주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 함양동두천 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    동두천출장안마┨예약➻동두천인계동 안마방《동두천안마방 전화번호》☭〖동두천러브젤 마사지〗↖동두천동래 마사지ⓥ동두천태국 에스코트✈동두천계산택지 안마방⇘동두천안마방 보지⇚동두천속초 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    동두천출장안마⇛24시출장샵τ동두천인계동 안마방《동두천하마사키 마오 마사지》┒〖동두천부산 서면 출장〗⇪동두천후두 마사지┓동두천마포 마사지イ동두천퇴폐╠ 동두천안마사⇔동두천나주 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 고흥광주 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 평택출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 원주안마방 옵션 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that lovejg.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    동두천출장안마┯예약금없는출장샵ホ동두천인계동 안마방《동두천병점 안마방》チ〖동두천송탄 마사지〗✪동두천출장샵예약☎동두천건식 마사지⇠동두천출장가격♩동두천전신 마사지♫동두천아프리카tv 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: bein.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 울산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    동두천출장안마⇔예약↿동두천인계동 안마방《동두천포항 마사지》♬〖동두천강서구 안마방〗☈동두천안마방 영어☆동두천수안보 마사지↺동두천안마방 왕가슴녀♡동두천서울 여인숙 가격┠동두천안마방 추천

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    고성일본 마사지
    카지노사이트 장수안마방 잠 군산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    동두천출장안마☇출장부르는법◆동두천인계동 안마방《동두천안마방 사진》↜〖동두천콜걸〗ク동두천부산 모텔 아가씨⇖동두천계산택지 안마방ロ동두천하남 마사지ⓞ동두천필고ヨ동두천방이동 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.동두천출장안마동두천태국 출장 마사지◦동두천가산 마사지✈〖동두천베트남 마사지 후기〗동두천누드 마사지☀동두천안중 마사지┻동두천응암동 마사지.동두천성인마사지║대전출장샵출장부르는법동두천안마방 야간┷동두천콜 걸ε‹동두천고딩 마사지›동두천뒷목 마사지▪동두천발바닥 마사지╩동두천출장안마야한곳↞동두천안마방 중독♡동두천출장안마부산안마방 동창동두천출장만족보장◇동두천포항 아가씨♡〈동두천렉시벨 마사지〉동두천명동 마사지➠동두천관평동 마사지リ동두천강서 마사지♕동두천경마 예상 지존 대회⇚동두천안마방 몰카◑동두천하남 마사지☌{동두천안마방 영어}동두천삿포로 안마방☠동두천대구 전립선 마사지➴동두천안마방 투샷☼동두천울산 삼산동 안마방✆동두천경성대 마사지0동두천출장아가씨▧ [동두천턱 마사지]동두천신중동 마사지◄동두천전주 여관⇖동두천안마방 순서 동두천인천 안마방✿동두천시엠립 밤문화 마사지★동두천에가오 마사지◣﹝동두천나비야 마사지﹞동두천여성 마사지 후기┮동두천태국 현지 마사지┝동두천붕따우 마사지▌동두천모텔┛출장부르는법문경마사지 테라피24시출장샵동두천서양 안마방╔동두천서산 마사지カ﹛동두천모텔 출장﹜동두천공유 마사지♚동두천콜걸추천↺동두천중국 우한 마사지↓동두천사북 마사지◑동두천출장안마동두천출장안마평택출장샵동두천마사지 출장동두천출장 선입금동두천프라하 마사지동두천v라인 마사지동두천출장안마동두천해수욕장 마사지 토렌트☜동두천동남아 안마방✖《동두천해피 출장》동두천상남동 안마방⊙동두천마석 안마방♧동두천남양주 마사지✔동두천여의도 마사지┘경상남도누드 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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